歎為觀止 世界最奇特的18座建築

  下面這些我們非常喜愛的非凡建築設計,其中有博物館、辦公樓、住宅和圖書館——並且我們會告訴你為何它們如此吸引眼球。

  圖1 森林螺旋城

  City: Darmstadt, Germany

  地點:德國,達姆施塔特

  Background: Friedensreich Hundertwasser, an Austrian architect and painter, designed this building, which contains 105 apartments and a restaurant.

  背景:

  奧地利著名建築師和畫家百水先生設計了這個建築,裡面有105間公寓和一個餐廳。

  How It's Strange: Buildings are not usually this gaudy. "It's fantastical," says Toby Israel, a design psychologist and author of Some Place Like Home. Hundertwasser, known for his colorful, irregular-shaped buildings, chose windows of different shapes and sizes for this apartment. In addition, the building's colors are meant to represent layers of sediment rock.

 森林螺旋城

  奇特之處:

  建築很少會如此華麗。“真是難以想像”設計心理學家、《就像在家一樣》的作者托比·伊斯雷爾說道。百水先生以其建築色彩豐富、外形不規則、房間窗戶形狀大小各異而聞名。此外,這個建築的顏色代表著不同沉積岩的地層。

  圖2 聖瑪麗·艾克斯街30號

  City: London

  地點:英國,倫敦

  Background: This is the second tallest building in the City of London. Opened in 2004, it is commonly referred to as the Gherkin, after the cucumber-like fruit. Its suggestive shape also earned it the nickname "Towering Innuendo."

  背景:

  這是倫敦市區第二高的建築。它於2004年投入使用,由於其酷似黃瓜的水果外形,人們一般把它稱作“小黃瓜”。其引人聯想的外形也衍生出了暱稱“高聳的諷刺”

  註:

  小黃瓜這個名稱的由來至少可以追溯到1999年,其所指的是這棟大樓極度非正統(unorthodox)的外觀建構。此外,由於大樓外觀在某種程度上近似於菲勒斯(陽具)圖騰的意象,所以也衍生出了其他的一些暱稱如:性愛小黃瓜(Erotic Gherkin),高聳的諷刺(Towering Innuendo,挖苦其因為自身缺陷或不足而建構作為補償或安慰)以及水晶菲勒斯等(Crystal Phallus)。

  1996年崔佛嘉集團提出一份建造倫敦千禧塔的計劃,預計興建一棟總高度386米,總樓層面積90,000平方米,並含有一座305米觀景台的摩天大樓。然而,此計劃因為遭到反對而作罷,取而代之並獲得許可的是原計劃的更新版本,改為建造一座高度較低的大樓,也就是現在的聖瑪利艾克斯30號大樓。

聖瑪麗·艾克斯街30號

  奇特之處:

  該建築的圓周驚人,其大周長僅比高度少兩米。伊斯雷爾介紹說,類似的圓周極其少見,因為這需要電腦輔助設計,施工的成本也更高。此外,“小黃瓜”有很多窗戶,其外部安裝了2.4萬平方米的玻璃幕牆,形成了獨特的、高效節能的建築。

  圖3 棲息地 '67

  City: Montreal, Canada

  地點:加拿大,蒙特利爾

  Background: This apartment building was built for Expo 67, the 1967 world exhibition held in Canada. Although Habitat 67 was supposed to provide affordable housing after the Expo ended—much like the stated plans for Vancouver's Olympic Village— its apartments go for luxury apartment prices because of the unique architecture.

  背景:

  這個公寓建築是為加拿大1967年世博會而造。雖然當初打算在世博後將其作為廉價住宅——類似於溫哥華奧運村的規劃——然而由於獨特的建築設計,這裡已經成為高檔社區。

  How It's Strange: The apartments look oddly positioned and disjointed, but Israel says there's actually a purpose behind the design: Habitat 67 is made from 354 cubes, stacked so that no window faces toward another window to provide privacy. "It's unusual-looking," Israel says, "but it's user-friendly."

 棲息地 '67

  奇特之處:

  每間房子看上去都很奇怪而且彼此分離,但伊斯雷爾解釋了這樣設計的真正目的:棲息地 '67由354個立方體公寓構成,它們逐個堆疊,鄰近房間窗戶朝著不同方向以保護隱私。“這看上去很不尋常,”伊斯雷爾說,“但很適合居住。”

  圖4 巨蛋

  City: Albany, NY

  地點:美國,紐約,奧爾巴尼

  Background: This building is the Center for Performing Arts. It holds two theaters for concerts and shows, one seating 450 people and the other with capacity for 892.

  背景:

  這座建築是表演藝術中心。其中有兩個劇場,音樂廳可容納450人,演出大廳可容納892人。

  How It's Strange: You won't see many copies of this design because it requires an intensive support system. A heavily-reinforced concrete beam helps maintain the egg shape and transmit its weight to the supporting stem, which extends six stories underground. The end result is a building that looks like a sculpture, with an interior without straight lines or corners.

巨蛋

  奇特之處:

  這種設計很少見,因為這種造型需要非常密集的支撐系統。一根超配鋼筋梁幫助維持巨蛋的形狀,並將其重量傳導至下部支撐,而下部支撐的埋入地下高達六層樓之深(註:一層樓高約3~4米)。這樣設計的結果使建築看上去像是雕刻而成的,其內部沒有筆直的道路和轉角。

  圖5 弗林特石屋

  City: Burlingame, Calif.

  地點:美國,加利福尼亞,伯靈格姆

  Background: Architect William Nicholson designed this home in the 1970s. To construct the unique shapes, builders formed a wire mesh over inflated aeronautical balloons and sprayed them with concrete.

  背景:

  建築師威廉·尼克爾森於上世紀70年代設計了這個房子。為了建造奇特的外形,建設者編製了一個鐵絲網,將其覆蓋在膨脹的飛行氣球表面,再往上塗混凝土。

  How It's Strange: When people design a residential home, they want it to reflect their personalities and preferences. The dome-shape rooms are different and expressive, but the Flintstone requires a particular buyer, Israel says. "It's not everyone's American dream home."

弗林特石屋

  奇特之處:

  當人們設計住宅時,都希望能從建築上表現出個性和喜好。這些圓頂外形的屋子與眾不同而且引人注目,但是弗林特石屋只適合特定的買家,伊斯雷爾說道:“這不是每個美國人夢想中的房子。”

  圖6 集裝箱城2號

  City: London

  地點:英國,倫敦

  Background: Container City II is a studio space for 22 artists. The Urban Space Management company designs various Container Cities like this one for use as homes, offices and stores.

  背景:

  集裝箱城2號是22位藝術家的工作室。都市空間管理公司設計了各種各樣的集裝箱城,用於住宅、辦公和店舖。How It's Strange: Container Cities use old shipping containers to create modular buildings that are cheap and quick to build. The colors and design of Container City II were devised "to reflect the creative flair of those who work here," according to the company.

 集裝箱城2號

  奇特之處:

  集裝箱城採用舊的航運集裝箱製作組合式建築,其價格便宜而且施工快。據公司介紹,集裝箱城2號的顏色和外觀被設計成“能反映出在此工作的藝術家極富創造力的才華”。

  圖7 彎曲屋

  City: Sopot, Poland

  地點:波蘭,索波特

  Background: The Crooked House is located in a shopping center. Built in 2003, the house is used for commercial purposes.

  背景:

  彎曲屋位於一個購物中心。這座建築造於2003年,現用於商業。

  How It's Strange: Drawings from a children's books illustrator, Jan Marcin Szancer, partially inspired the building's wavy look, which fits snugly between neighboring buildings and looks as though it's sagging in place. The building's roof is meant to create the illusion of dragon scales.

彎曲屋

  奇特之處:

  兒童讀物插畫家Jan Marcin Szancer設計了這棟建築,它起伏的外觀就像是被兩邊的建築擠壓所致,而且看上去還在不斷凹陷。而建築的屋頂刻意做成了龍鱗的樣子。

  圖8 籃子大樓

  City: Newark, Ohio

  地點:美國,俄亥俄州,紐瓦克

  Background: This building is the home office of the Longaberger Company, which sells baskets.

  背景:

  這是Longaberger公司的總部大樓,這家公司是賣菜籃子的……

  How It's Strange: The building looks like a basket. "There is a whole tradition of using supersize realistic objects to draw attention," Israel says. "It's a fun way to catch a consumer's eye." This building's windows in particular are visually interesting because they mimic a basket's weave pattern.

籃子大樓

  奇特之處:

  這大樓看起來像個籃子。“這是非常典型的通過放大實物尺寸引起注意,”伊斯雷爾說道,“它通過有趣的方式吸引消費者目光。”從外面看,這座大樓的窗戶別有特色,因為它模擬了菜籃子的編織樣式。

  圖9 社區書架

  City: Kansas City, Mo.

  地點:美國,密蘇里州,堪薩斯城Background: This funky building is the parking garage for Kansas City's Central Library. It features 22 book titles, which the Kansas City Public Library Board of Trustees selected from library members' suggestions.

  這個獨特的建築是堪薩斯城中央圖書館的停車場。做為組成其外牆的22本書,是由堪薩斯城中央圖書館管理委員會從會員推薦中挑選出的。

  How It's Strange: This is another case of using huge realistic objects to catch the eye; the book spines measure approximately 25 by 9 feet. The book titles include The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes and Romeo and Juliet.

社區書架

  奇特之處:

  這又是一個放大實物尺寸以吸引眼球的案例,這些“書脊”將近9英尺寬25英尺高(註:1英尺 = 0.3048 米)。這些書包括《蘭斯頓·休斯詩集》和《羅密歐與朱麗葉》。

  圖10 古根海姆博物館

  City: Bilbao, Spain

  地點:西班牙,畢爾巴鄂

  Background: Renowned architect Frank Gehry designed the Guggenheim Museum in an industrial city in Northern Spain. Glass walls link the building's striking curves, which are made of stone, glass and titanium.

  背景:

  著名的建築師弗蘭克·蓋裡設計了位於西班牙北部工業城市的古根海姆博物館。石頭、玻璃和鈦合金組成了這座建築突出的曲線,再通過玻璃幕牆將它們連成一體。

  How It's Strange: The building fits into a style of architecture called deconstructivism, which is known for "stimulating unpredictability and controlled chaos," Israel says. A building of this complexity is rare because it requires advanced technology to design. For example, Gehry created these mathematically complex curves with a 3D computer design program initially developed for the aerospace industry.

古根海姆博物館

  奇特之處:

  這個建築充滿了結構主義的建築風格,伊斯雷爾介紹說,這種風格以“刺激性的不可預測性和可控的混亂”而聞名。像這樣複雜的建築並不多見,因為這需要更先進的設計技術。例如,為了設計出這些複雜的數學曲線,蓋裡運用了起初為航天工業開發的計算機3D設計軟件。

  圖11 費迪南德白馬宮(又名,理想宮)

  City: Hauterives, France

  地點:法國,歐特裡沃

  Background: Ferdinand Cheval, a rural postman, built this palace between 1879 and 1912. He had no background in architecture or masonry, and a uniquely shaped stone was the inspiration for the project. Today, the castle is a popular tourist destination.

  背景:

  費迪南德是一名鄉村郵遞員,他在1879至1912年間建造了這個宮殿。他沒有任何建築學或者石工術背景,是一塊形狀獨特的石頭給他建設的靈感。今天,這座城堡成為了著名的旅遊景點。

  How It's Strange: The palace mixes architectural styles from different epochs and places, such as Northern Europe, China and Algiers. Cheval used a variety of materials, including limestone, shells and stones, to create this elaborately carved building. He spent almost three decades just gathering stones for the project.

費迪南德白馬宮(又名,理想宮

  奇特之處:

  這個宮殿混合了許多不同時代和不同地區的建築風格,例如北歐風格、中國風格和阿爾及利亞風格。費迪南德使用了多種材料,包括石灰石、貝殼和岩石,用來製作這精雕細琢的建築。僅是為這個建築收集石頭,他就花了差不多三十年的時間。

  圖12 舞蹈大廈

  City: Prague, Czech Republic

  地點:捷克共和國,布拉格

  Background: Frank Gehry and fellow architect Vlado Milunic designed this building.

  背景:弗蘭克·蓋裡和建築師Vlado Milunic共同設計了這棟建築。

  How It's Strange: The building is meant to look like a dancing couple, complete with a skirt swaying to the music. Its nickname is "Ginger and Fred" after famous dancing pair Ginger Rogers and Fred Astair. A building like this sticks out among more traditional high-rise buildings. "It helps make Prague a dynamic, cultured city," Israel says.

舞蹈大廈

  奇特之處:

  這座建築看上去就像一對正在跳舞的情侶,(外形的弧線)猶如伴隨音樂飄揚的裙擺,使造型更加完美。它的暱稱“琴吉和弗雷德”取自一對著名的舞伴琴吉·羅傑斯和弗雷德·阿斯泰爾。這棟建築在傳統高層建築中如此突出,“它使布拉格成為具有動感和文化底蘊的城市。”伊斯雷爾說道。

  圖13 蓮花寺(又名靈曦堂)

  City: New Delhi, India

  地點:印度,新德里

  Background: Officially known as the Bah '’ House of Worship, this temple is one of the most visited structures in India. Over 8000 people attended its opening ceremony in 1986.

  背景:

  正式名稱為巴哈伊宗教教院,它是印度參觀人數多的寺院之一。超過8000人參加了1986年舉行的開幕式。

  How It's Strange: The building is designed to represent the lotus flower, a religious symbol for various religions prevalent in India, including Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam. "When it comes to spiritual architecture," Israel says, "you're looking for some kind of personal meaning or connection." The temple consists of three sets of petals, covered in marble, and it is open at the top.

蓮花寺(又名靈曦堂)

  奇特之處:

  這座寺院看上去如同蓮花,以宗教符號的形式代表了在印度盛行的各種宗教,包括印度教、佛教和伊斯蘭教。伊斯雷爾介紹道:“當涉及宗教建築時,你必須考慮到一些人物含義或者聯繫。”這個寺院有三組花瓣構成,表面以大理石覆蓋,並且頂部是開放的。

  圖14 小聖堂

  City: Colorado Springs, Colo.

  地點:美國,科羅拉多州,科羅拉多斯普林斯市

  Background: The chapel is part of the United States Air Force Academy. It's an all-faith place of worship, with four separate chapels—one for Protestants, Catholics, Jews and Buddhists.

  背景:

  小聖堂是美國空軍學院的一部分。它是各種信仰的禮拜堂,包括四個小教堂——分別供基督教徒、天主教徒、猶太教徒和佛教徒使用。

  How It's Strange: This chapel is a spiritual building designed to have viewers experience religion—and the house of worship—in a new way, Israel says. It consists of 17 spires soaring 150 feet into the air.

小聖堂

  奇特之處:

  伊斯雷爾介紹說,小聖堂的宗教建築設計方式,使來訪者以全新的方式體驗宗教和教堂的魅力。這座建築的屋頂直指藍天,由17個150英尺的高聳尖塔組成。

  圖15 尼泰羅伊當代藝術博物館

  City: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  地點:巴西,里約熱內盧

  Background: The building, opened in 1996, serves as a museum.

  背景:

  這座建築於1996年落成,現在是一家博物館。

  How It's Strange: The circular building resembles a UFO. A cylinder 29.5 feet in diameter supports the entire structure, which makes it seem like it's floating above the surrounding water. In addition, the building was treated with a heat-resistant material that has been used to protect NASA rockets.

尼泰羅伊當代藝術博物館

  奇特之處:

  這座圓形的建築看起來像個UFO。一根直徑29.5英尺的圓柱體支撐著整個建築,遠遠看去,這個UFO就像漂浮在海上。此外,這棟建築採用了一種曾被NASA(美國國家航空航天局)用在火箭上的隔熱材料。

  圖16 方塊屋

  City: Rotterdam, Netherlands

  地點:荷蘭,鹿特丹

  Background: The 38 cubes, built on top of a pedestrian bridge in 1984, are residential homes that overlook a commercial area with restaurants and shops.

  背景:

  建於1984年的方塊屋由38個立方體組成,坐落在一座人行天橋的頂部,這些用作住宅的方塊屋可以俯瞰一條由旅館和店舖組成的商業街。

  How It's Strange: Architect Piet Blom wanted each cube to represent an abstract tree—taken together, all the cubes are supposed to make a forest. The tilted cubes sit on hexagonal poles. Each one is three stories, with the top story a three-sided pyramid covered in windows.

 方塊屋

  奇特之處:

  在建築師皮埃特·布洛姆的構想中,每個立方體都代表一顆抽像的樹——所有的立方體合在一起,就如同一片森林。傾斜的立方體彼此相鄰,看上去如同一個六角形(註:請參照圖片)。每個方塊屋都有三層,頂層猶如一個金字塔,三面由玻璃覆蓋。

  圖17 亞歷山大圖書館

  City: Alexandria, Egypt

  地點:埃及,亞歷山大

  Background: The library is located almost exactly where an ancient Egyptian library once stood. This modern version rises 11 stories and attracts 1 million visitors a year.

  背景:

  這座圖書館的所在地曾經是一座古埃及圖書館。而今的圖書館共有11層樓,每年吸引100萬遊客前來參觀。

  How It's Strange: The most striking feature of the library is its large, slanted disc, which represents a rising sun. This is supposed to symbolize an emerging place of learning; in addition, sun discs played a role in ancient Egyptian religion and mythology.

亞歷山大圖書館

  奇特之處:

  這個圖書館特別之處在它那巨大的傾斜輪盤,代表了正在升起的太陽。它應該象徵了這座圖書館是新崛起的學術場所。此外,太陽輪盤在古埃及宗教和神話中扮演著重要的角色。

  圖18 白俄羅斯國家圖書館

  City: Minsk, Belarus

  地點:白俄羅斯,明斯克

  Background: The Belarus National Library's design was selected in an international contest in 1989, but construction didn't begin until 2002.

  背景:

  白俄羅斯國家圖書館的設計方案是在1989年的國際競標中挑選出的,但直到2002年才動工興建。

  How It's Strange: The goal of making such common buildings look weird, Israel says, is to make them "landmarks within a city, not only spaces that have practical function." This one is meant to resemble a diamond.

 白俄羅斯國家圖書館

  奇特之處:

  伊斯雷爾介紹說,建造這座普通建築的原因非常奇怪,是為了讓它“不僅成為具有實際用途的空間,而且還要成為城市的地標建築”。這座圖書館看上去如同一顆大鑽石。




發表評論

:?: :razz: :sad: :evil: :!: :smile: :oops: :grin: :eek: :shock: :???: :cool: :lol: :mad: :twisted: :roll: :wink: :idea: :arrow: :neutral: :cry: :mrgreen:

圖片 表情